Foundation for Advancement in Cancer Therapy

Non-Traditional Approaches to
the Theories, Treatments and Prevention of Cancer

Cucumber

July 15, 2019

The cucumber is said to be native to India, although plant explorers have never been able to discover a wild prototype. Cucumbers have been cultivated for thousands of years, and records indicate that they were used as food in ancient Egypt, and were a popular vegetable with the Greeks and Romans. The cucumber is one of the few vegetables mentioned in the Bible.

In 200 B.C. a Chinese ambassador traveled as far as Persia, where he saw cucumbers for the first time. Later, he brought the to China. At a later date, an English sea captain, returning from the West Indies, brought back pickled gherkins to Mrs. Samuel Pepys. Shortly after this period, cucumbers were grown in England.

Occasionally, in a collection of old glass, a plain glass tube or cylinder resembling a lamp chimney with parallel sides will tum up. This may be an English cucumber glass, a device used at one time to make cucumbers grow straight. George Stephenson, inventor of the locomotive, is credited with its invention.

Florida is the principal producer of cucumbers, supplying al­ most one-third of the total United States commercial crop for mar­ ket. California, North and South Carolina, New Jersey, and New York are also large producers.

Cucumbers for slicing should be firm, fresh, bright, well­ shaped, and of good medium or dark green color. The flesh should be firm and the seeds immature. Withered or shriveled cucumbers should be avoided. Their flesh is generally tough or rubbery and somewhat bitter. Over maturity is indicated by a generally over­ grown, puffy appearance. The color of over mature cucumbers is generally dull and not infrequently yellowed, the flesh is tough, the seeds hard, and the flesh in the seed cavity almost jelly-like. Cu­ cumbers in this condition should not be used for slicing. Some varieties are of solid green color when mature enough for slicing. but usually a little whitish color will be found at the tip, with a tendency to extend in lines along the seams, where they advance from pale green to white, and finally yellow with age.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Cucumbers are alkaline, non-starchy vegetables. They are a cooling food, especially when used in vegetable juices. Long ago it was believed that people would die from eating the peelings, but this is not true.

Cucumbers are wonderful as a digestive aid, and have a purify­ing effect on the bowel. It is not necessary to soak them in salt water. Serve them thinly sliced, raw, in sour cream, lemon juice, or yogurt for a delightful summer dish. They have a marvelous effect on the skin, and the old saying ”keeping cool as a cucumber” is literally true because of its cooling effect on the blood.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 39

Protein: 2.2 g

Fat: 0.3 g

Carbohydrates: 8.6 g

Calcium: 32 mg

Phosphorus: 67 mg

Iron: 1.0 mg

Vitamin A: 0 I.U.

Thiamine: 0.11 mg

Riboflavin: 0.14 mg

Niacin: 0.7 mg

Ascorbic Acid: 27 mg

Tomato

July 8, 2019

It is believed that the present type of tomato is descended from a species no larger than marbles, that grew thousands of years ago. The tomato is native to the Andean region of South America and was under cultivation in Peru in the sixteenth century at the time of the Spanish conquest. Before the end of the sixteenth century, the people of England and the Netherlands were eating and enjoying tomatoes. The English called it the “love apple,” and English romancers presented it as a token of affection; Sir Walter Raleigh is said to have presented one to Queen Elizabeth.

M. F. Corne is credited with being the first man to eat a tomato. His fellow citizens of Newport, Rhode Island, erected a monument to him, because the tomato was considered poisonous until Mr. Corne dared to eat one.

By cultivation and use the tomato is a vegetable; botanically, it is a fruit, and can be classified as a berry, being pulpy and containing one or more seeds that are not stones. It is considered a citric acid fruit and is in the same classification as oranges and grapefruit. Some oxalic acid is also contained in the tomato.

Consumption of tomatoes is on the increase. They are the third most important vegetable crop on the basis of market value; the first is potatoes. Tomatoes are produced in all states. In order of importance, the producers are: Texas, California, Florida, Ohio, and Tennessee. In the first four month~ of the year heavy shipments are imported from Mexico and Cuba. Fresh tomatoes are available all year, either from domestic production or imports. June and August are the peak months.

Tomatoes number greatly in variety, but it is estimated that only sixteen varieties are included in 90 percent of all tomatoes grown in the United States. Their characteristic colors range from pink to scarlet. A white tomato has recently been developed that is supposed to be acid-free. A good, mature tomato is neither overripe nor soft, but well developed, smooth, and free from decay, cracks, or bruises. Spoiled tomatoes should be separated immediately from the sound ones or decay will quickly spread.

If fresh, ripe tomatoes are unavailable, canned tomato and canned tomato juice are fine substitutes. It is preferable to use tomato puree, rather than canned tomatoes put up in water. Puree contains more vitamins and minerals.

Tomatoes are best when combined with proteins. Use tomatoes in both fruit and vegetable salads. They are cooling and refreshing in beverages, and are especially good as a flavoring for soups. Tomatoes can be used to give color, and make green salads more inviting.

Tomato juice should be used very soon after it has been drawn from the tomato, or after the canned juice is opened. If it is opened and left that way, it will lose much of its mineral value, because it oxidizes very quickly.

Tomatoes should be picked ripe, as the acids of the green tomato are very detrimental to the body and very hard on the kidneys. Many of the tomatoes today are grown in hothouses and are picked too green and allowed to ripen on their way to the markets or in cold storage plants built for this purpose. If the seeds, or the internal part of the tomato, is still green, while the outside is red, this is an indication that the fruit has been picked too green.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

The tomato is not acid forming; it contains a great deal of citric acid but is alkaline forming when it enters the bloodstream. It increases the alkalinity of the blood and helps remove toxins, especially uric acid, from the system. As a liver cleanser, tomatoes are wonderful, especially when used with the green vegetable juices.

In many of the sanitariums in Europe tomatoes are used as a poultice for various conditions in the body. There is a mistaken belief that tomatoes are not good for those who have rheumatism and gout. People with these conditions should mix tomato juice with other vegetable juices to avoid a reaction that may be too strong.

Whenever the blood is found to be stagnant in any part of the body, a tomato poultice is wonderful as a treatment in removing that stagnation. It acts as a dissolving agent or solvent.

Tomatoes are very high in vitamin value. They are wonderful as a blood cleanser, and excellent in elimination diets. However, they should not be used to excess on a regular basis. Tomato juice can be used in convalescent diets, in combination with other raw vegetable juices such as celery, parsley, beet, and carrot juice.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 97

Protein: 4.5g

Fat: 0.9g

Carbohydrates: 17.7g

Calcium: 50mg

Phosphorus: 123mg

Iron: 2.7mg

Vitamin A: 4,0801.U.

Thiamine: 0.23mg

Riboflavin: 0.15mg

Niacin: 3.2mg

Ascorbic acid: 102mg

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Apricot

July 1, 2019

The apricot is said to have originated in China. It spread from there to other parts of Asia, then to Greece and Italy. As early as 1562 there is mention of the apricot in England in Turner’s Herbal.

It is recorded that the apricot grew in abundance in Virginia in the year 1720. In 1792 Vancouver, the explorer, found a fine fruit orchard that included apricots at Santa Clara, California. The fruit was probably brought to California by the Mission Fathers in the eighteenth century.

The apricot is a summer fruit, and is grown in the Western United States. California produces 97 percent of the commercial apricot crop. Only about 21 percent of the apricots produced commercially are sold fresh; the remainder are canned, dried, or frozen.

Tree-ripened apricots have the best flavor, but tree-ripened fruit is rarely available in stores, even those close to the orchard. The next best thing to a well-matured apricot is one that is orange-yellow in color, and plump and juicy. Immature apricots never attain the right sweetness or flavor. There are far too many immature apricots on the market. They are greenish-yellow, the flesh is firm, and they taste sour. Avoid green and shriveled apricots.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE IN APRICOTS

Apricots may be eaten raw in a soft diet. Ripe apricots are especially good for very young children and for older people. This fruit is quite laxative, and rates high in alkalinity. Apricots also contain cobalt, which is necessary in the treatment of anemic conditions.

Apricots may be pureed for children who are just beginning to eat solid foods. Apricot whip for dessert is wonderful, and apricots and cream may be used in as many ways as possible. They make good afternoon and evening snacks.

Dried apricots have six times as much sugar content as the fresh fruit. Therefore, persons with diabetic conditions must be careful not to eat too much dried apricot. Because of its sugar content, however, it is good when we need an energy boost.

Dried fruits should be put in cold water and brought to a boil the night before, or permitted to soak all night, before eating. Bringing the water to a boil kills any germ life that may be on the fruit. Sweeten only with honey, maple syrup, or natural sugars.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND OF APRICOTS

Calories: 241

Protein: 4.3 g

Fat: 0.4 g

Carbohydrates: 55.1 g

Calcium: 68 mg

Phosphorus: 98 mg

Iron: 2.1 mg

Vitamin A: 11,930 I.U.

Thiamine: 0.13 mg

Riboflavin: 0.17 mg

Niacin: 3.2 mg

Ascorbic acid: 42 mg

Lettuce

June 24, 2019

Lettuce is one of the oldest vegetables and probably originated in India or Central Asia. According to the writings or Herodotus, lettuce was served to the Persian kings as far back as the sixth century BC. It was a popular Roman food at about the beginning of the Christian era, and in the first century AD a dozen distinctively different varieties were described by Roman writers of the era. There is also evidence that lettuce was grown in China in the fifth century AD.

Columbus may have carried lettuce seeds to the New World, for it was being cultivated in the Bahamas in 1494. It was a common vegetable in Haiti as early as 1565, and Brazil was reported to have cultivated before 1650. The early colonists evidently introduced lettuce into the US, and in 1806 16 varieties were reported growing in American gardens.

Both the English and Latin words for lettuce are based on the heavy, milky juice of the vegetable, which is characteristic of the lettuce family. The primitive forms of lettuce has long stems and large leafs grew at the end of these stems. These closed –packed lettuce heads were well developed in Europe by the 16th century, while the loose common head type of developed later.

Lettuce has become the most valuable truck crop, and 85% of the commercial crop is produced in the west-California, Arizona, Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. The northeast and south Atlantic states are also important lettuce growing regions.

Lettuce is available all year, and the peak months are May, June, and July. Although the crisp head and butter head types are the most important from a commercial standpoint, the Cos or Romaine type are bets from a health standpoint, as the sun is allowed to penetrate each leaf. The leaves generally have less of the bitterness that is characteristic of some types of head lettuce. The “leaf” or the “bunching” type of lettuce is distinguished by loose leaves that do not form a head. This type is best for home gardening, as it can be grown in areas where the temperature is too high for successful growing of the other types of lettuce. The stem type lettuce has an enlarged stem and no head. The leaves are not as palpable as the other types of lettuce leaves except when young and tender. The stems are pulled and eaten raw or cooked.

Lettuce of good quality should be fresh, crisp, and tender, and if in head lettuce form, the head should be fairly firm to hard. Lettuce with a well developed seed stem has a bitter flavor.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Leaf lettuce is much richer in iron than head lettuce. We do not advocate using head lettuce in the diet, for it contains little nourishment. It contains significantly lower amounts of vitamins A and C than green Romaine lettuce. The darker green outside leaves contain a much higher proportion of the valuable food elements than the light colored inner leaves. Head lettuce is very gas forming , and really only offers bulk to the intestinal tract. It has an alkaline ash, however, and is not stimulating. Also, it is excellent for those who would like to lose weight. It also has many sleep promoting elements and makes good lettuce juice, which help promote sleep. It tends to slow down the digestive effect of the intestinal tract.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND (head lettuce)

Calories: 57

Protein: 3.8 g

Fat: 0.6 g

Carbohydrates: 0.1 g

Calcium: 86 mg

Phosphorus: 78 mg

Iron: 1.6 mg

Vitamin A: 1,710 I.U.

Thiamine: 0.20 mg

Riboflavin: 0.21 mg

Niacin: 0.5 mg

Ascorbic acid: 24 mg

Cherry

June 17, 2019

Garden cherries originated chiefly from two species, the sour cherry and the sweet cherry. Both are native to Eastern Europe and Western Asia, where they have been cultivated since ancient times. Cherry pits have been found in prehistoric cave dwellings.

Cherries are grown in every state. Leading cherry producers are New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, Montana, Idaho, Colorado, Utah, Washington, Oregon, and California. Washington, Oregon, and California leading sweet cherry production, while Michigan leads in production of sour cherries.

The Tartarian variety, which is mahogany to black in color, and medium to large in size, is a popular early to mid-season variety of sweet cherry. The cherry in heaviest demand for the fresh market is the Bing: an extra large, heart-shaped, deep maroon to black fruit. It is firm, high-flavored, and stands up well. Bing cherries are on the market through the months of June and July. The Black Republican and Lambert are similar in appearance to the Bing. The Royal Ann is the leading light-colored cherry, and is used primarily for canning. It is large, is light amber to yellow with red blush, and has a delightful flavor. The Schmidt is a dark red to black sweet cherry grown widely. The Windsor is another popular sweet cherry, and its color is dark red to almost black.

The leading sour varieties of the cherry are the Early Richmond of the East and Middle West, The Montmorenci and the English Morello.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

The cherry is high in Iron, and is an excellent laxative as well as a wonderful blood builder. The black cherry is best for eating.

Cherries mix well with other fruits and with proteins, but never with starches. They are wonderful in an elimination diet. The cherry should not often be mixed with dairy foods. This fruit, which has high alkaline content, also gets rid of toxic waste, and it has a wonderful effect on the glandular system.

Black cherry juice is wonderful for flavoring teas so that sugar can be avoided. It is a wonderful gall bladder and liver cleanse because of its high iron content. Take a six-ounce glass of black cherry juice each morning before breakfast for the gall bladder and liver.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 286

Protein: 5.3 g

Fat: 1.2 g

Carbohydrates: 71 g

Calcium: 90 mg

Phosphorus: 78 mg

Iron: 1.6 mg

Vitamin A: 450 I.U.

Thiamine: .20 mg

Riboflavin: .24 mg

Niacin: 1.7 mg

Ascorbic acid: 41 mg

Rhubarb

June 10, 2019

Rhubarb is a species of plant in the family Polygonaceae. They are herbaceous perennials growing from short, thick rhizomes. They have large leaves that are somewhat triangular, with long fleshy petioles. They have small flowers grouped in large compound leafy greenish-white to rose-red inflorescences.

Most commonly, rhubarb’s leaf stalks are cooked with sugar and used in pies and other desserts. A number of varieties have been domesticated for human consumption, most of which are recognized as Rheum x hybridum by the Royal Horticultural Society.

Rhubarb is usually considered to be a vegetable; however, in the United States, a New York court decided in 1947 that since it was used in the United States as a fruit, it was to be counted as a fruit for the purposes of regulations and duties. A side effect was a reduction on imported rhubarb tariffs, as tariffs were higher for vegetables than fruits.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Rhubarb can be used as a strong laxative. Its roots have been used as a laxative for at least 5,000 years.

The roots and stems are rich in anthraquinones, such as emodin and rhein. These substances are cathartic and laxative, which explains the sporadic use of rhubarb as a dieting aid. These molecules also contain sugars attached to them and are hence glycosides. Glycosides can retain water more thus adding to the cathartic action.

Rhubarb roots are used in traditional Chinese medicine; rhubarb also appears in medieval Arabic and European prescriptions.

The rhizomes (’roots’) contain stilbenoid compounds (including rhaponticin), which has shown to lower blood glucose levels in diabetic mice.

NUTRIENTS (per 100 grams)

Carbohydrates 4.54 g

Sugars 1.1 g

Dietary fibre 1.8 g

Fat 0.2 g

Protein 0.9 g

Water 93.61 g

Folate 7 μg

Vitamin C 8 mg

Vitamin E 0.27 mg

Vitamin K 29.3 μg

Calcium 86 mg

Iron 0.22 mg

Potassium 288 mg

Sodium 4 mg

Zinc 0.1 mg

Chicory

June 3, 2019

Chicory is closely related to endive. There are many varieties to chicory. They include green chicory, which is leafy; and radicchio, also a root chicory, which is red and white. Chicory is best when tossed in salad with other vegetables.

Green chicory is cultivated primarily in Europe, although varieties grow wild in Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Unite States. Belgium endive is primarily cultivated in Belgium and is prized for its delicate flavor. Radicchio is native to Italy and primarily grows there.

Radicchio is often sold with the root attached. If possible the root should be eaten because it is very good.

When selecting chicory, look for a fresh, crisp, green vegetable. Belgium endive, which looks like a tightly wrapped stalk, should be white or near white. Radicchio should be crisp and fresh.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Chicory is an alkaline food that is good in elimination diets. It is high in vitamin C.

Tea made from chicory roots and used as an enema is a wonderful remedy for increasing peristaltic action and getting the liver to work.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND (greens only)

Calories: 74

Protein: 6.7 g

Fat: 1.1 g

Carbohydrates: 14.1 g

Calcium: 320 mg

Phosphorus: 149 mg

Iron: 3.3 mg

Vitamin A: 14,880 I.U.

Thiamine: .22 mg

Riboflavin: .37 mg

Niacin: 1.9 mg

Ascorbic acid: —

Pea

May 27, 2019

Evidence shows that the pea has been around since prehistoric times. Although the pea is of uncertain origin, it is probably native to Central Europe or Central Asia. It is also probable that peas were brought from Greece or Italy by the Aryans 2,000 years before Christ.

The green pea is a natural soluble mixture of starch and protein. Fresh peas are alkaline-forming, while dried peas have a tendency to produce allergic reactions and to cause gas, particularly when eaten with too much protein or concentrated starch. The best quality pea is one that is young, fresh, tender, and sweet. Use fresh, young peas in order to obtain the greatest food value and flavor. The pod should be velvety soft to the touch, fresh in appearance, and bright green in color. The pods should be well filled and the peas well developed, but not bulging. The large ripe pea is really a seed and should not be considered a vegetable.

The real “sugar” pea is grown primarily in Europe and is little known in the United States. Because Chinese food is so popular in this country, there is a variety of pea grown and picked for the thick, soft, green pods that are used in these dishes. Their roughage is great for the intestinal tract, and they are very nourishing. However, this herbaceous, tendril-climbing legume can be eaten, pod and all, in any variety, if picked young enough. Those people who are troubled with a lot of gas or with a sensitive stomach wall or intestinal tract may find the hulls of the more mature pea irritating. In such cases, the peas should be pureed, or liquefied, to avoid irritating disturbances.

Fresh green peas tend to lose their sugar content unless they are refrigerated to about 32 degrees F shortly after being picked. They should be cooked soon after they have been picked, for they lose their tenderness and sweetness as they age. Shell just before cooking, retaining a few of the pods to cook with the peas for additional flavor. Cook in as little water as possible, so that no water need be discarded after cooking. If some pot liquor does remain after cooking, use it soup or as a base in the liquefied vegetable drink.

Never cook peas in bicarbonate of soda water in order to keep their fresh green appearance. This method not only destroys the food value and digestibility of the pea, but is totally unnecessary. Peas cooked in a vessel that is vapor-sealed or that has a tight lid, or steamed in parchment paper, with little water, retain their flavor, greenness, and vitamins. When combined with carrots or turnips, peas are particularly tasty, and when a little onion is added, they need not be seasoned. If seasoning is desired, add a little dehydrated broth powder after cooking and serve with butter.

The pea is a fairly rich source of incomplete protein. As an alkaline ash vegetable, it is highly nutritious when eaten raw, and is more easily digested than beans. However, it takes a strong digestive tract to properly digest raw peas. To eat in their raw state, liquefy, and combine with other vegetables, proteins, or starches, to help aid in their digestion. Do not combine with fruits.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

This alkaline-reacting vegetable is an outstanding source of vitamins A, B1, and C. The pea pods are very high in chlorophyll, iron, and calcium-controlling properties. Discarded pods are discarded vitamins and valuable minerals. Fresh garden peas are slightly diuretic in action. They also give relief to ulcer pains in the stomach because they help use up the stomach acids. In cases of ulcers, however, peas should be pureed. People who have a vitamin A deficiency should eat them raw, liquefied, or in juice. They should be eaten in combination with non-starchy vegetables to get the full value of the vitamin A they contain.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 201

Protein: 13.7g

Fat: 9.8g

Carbohydrates: 36.1g

Calcium: 45mg

Phosphorus: 249mg

Iron: 3.9mg

Vitamin A: 1,390 I.U.

Thiamine: .69mg

Riboflavin: .33mg

Niacin: 5.5mg

Ascorbic Acid: 54mg

Kale

May 20, 2019

Kale, and collard, its close relative, are the oldest known members of the cabbage family. Wild cabbage, which strongly resembles kale in its appearance, is still found growing along the European coasts and in North Africa. Kale is native either to the eastern Mediterranean region or to Asia Minor. It is known that man has been eating this vegetable for more than 4000 years.

The word “kale” was first used in Scotland, and is derived from the Greek and Latin words “coles” and “caulis”. These words refer to the whole group of cabbage-like plants. In America, kale was first mentioned in 1669, although it was probably introduced to this continent at an earlier date.

The sulfur compounds that are found in the cabbage family are, of course, also found in kale. These compounds break up easily, and decomposition occurs when kale is cooked too long or at too low a temperature. Overcooking also destroys the flavor.

Kale is on the market all year, but is most abundant through the late fall and winter. The peak months are December through February. Kale comes principally from Virginia, New York, New Jersey, and the Middle Atlantic states.

There are now many varieties of kale, but the crinkly-leaved and the smooth-leaved are the two most popular commercial types. The smooth type is usually referred to as spring kale, and the curly as green Scotch kale, or Siberian blue kale. Scotch kale are usually crinkled and curled, have a finely divided leaf, and are bright green to yellowish-green in color. The leaves of the Siberian kale are flattened and smooth in the center, with curled and ruffled edges, and are of a deep, bluish-green color. Wilted and yellowed leaves should be avoided.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Kale is very high in calcium, vitamin A, and iron. It is good for building up the calcium content of the body, and builds strong teeth. Kale is beneficial to the digestive and nervous systems.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 117

Protein: 11.3 g

Fat: 1.7 g

Carbohydrates: 21.0 g

Calcium: 655 mg

Phosphorus: 180 mg

Iron: 6.4 mg

Vitamin A: 21,950 I.U.

Thiamine: 0.3 mg

Riboflavin: 0.76 mg

Niacin: 5.8 mg

Ascorbic acid: 335 mg

Mushroom

May 13, 2019

The Pharaohs of Egypt monopolized mushrooms for their own use. They thought they were too delicate to be eaten by common people. The Egyptian potentates did not understand the sudden, overnight appearance of mushrooms, and consequently believed they grew magically. By the first century B.C., the mushroom had gained such a fine reputation among epicures of the Roman Empire that the poet Horace celebrated its goodness in verse. The Romans called mushrooms “food of the gods”, and served them on festive occasions. They were thought to provide warriors with unusual strength.

Up to the seventeenth century, only the wild types of mushrooms found growing in meadows and pastures were known. During the reign of Louis XIV, mushroom · growing was introduced in France. Parisian market gardeners experimented to learn the secrets of successful mushroom culture. By 1749 mushroom beds were cultivated in caves and cellars, and the results were much better’ than ·when they were grown outdoors. The British were raising mushrooms in hothouses sometime before 1700.

The commercial production of mushrooms in the United States started in the late 1890s when a group of florists in Chester County, Pennsylvania started growing them under the benches in their greenhouses. The greatest event in the history of mushroom culture in the United States occurred in 1926 when a farmer found a clump of pure white mushrooms in a bed of uniformly cream-colored fungi. Most of the mushrooms grown today are descendants of this white clump.

Mushrooms are now cultivated in specially constructed buildings that are windowless and in which temperature and humidity are controlled. Mushroom spawn is cultivated by laboratory scientists who sell it to the growers for inoculation of the mushroom beds. Such precise methods are necessary to provide pure spawn of known characteristics.

The introduction of mushrooms into gravies, sauces, soups, and other dishes adds zest and flavor, but they also are a fine food when served as a vegetable . Mushrooms require very little preparation. Wash, cut off the bottom portion of the stem if it has dried, and either slice the caps and stems or leave whole, depending on the method of cooking. Butter a deep pan, cut up the mushrooms so they fill the pan to a depth of about two inches, and simmer over a low· heat until the mushrooms are covered with their own juice. This may take more than ten minutes. Then, cook more briskly for about five minutes, until tender. Overcooking toughens mushrooms.

Green plants can get their food by manufacturing it in their leaves from air, water, sunshine , and soil nutrients, but mushrooms cannot do this. They have no leaves, so they must depend on green plants to make their food for them, and they cannot use it unless it is in the process of decay. Mushrooms propagate from spores, a brownish powder shed from the rounded head which, when ripe, opens like a parasol. However, cultivated mushrooms are not reproduced from spores, but from fine strands of mycelium, which are root like growths that spread through organic material. Most wild mushrooms are not poisonous, but unless you know the difference, you should leave them alone. It is not possible to tell by taste which mushrooms are dangerous. Some very unpalatable mushrooms are harmless, while others that have an agreeable taste are poisonous.

Scientists today say that darkness is not the primary requisite for growing mushrooms. They say that, for healthy growth, all mushrooms need constant temperature and protection against drafts.

The term mushroom refers to a large number of different species and varieties of fleshy fungi. Only one species is usually cultivated and that is Agaricus Campestris, which has a straight stem, a smooth cap of a shade varying from white or ivory to brown, and gills of different shades of pink. Most of the cultivated mushrooms grown in the United States are of the white variety variously known as Snow White, White King, White Queen, etc. This variety is very prolific and is preferred by nearly all markets because of its attractive, clean, white appearance.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Prior to the mid-1940s, all you needed to do to work up a hot argument among nutritionists was to say the word “mushrooms.” Scientists’ assertions about the food value of mushrooms ranged from calling them’ ‘vegetable beefsteak” full of proteins, to declaring that they had no protein and very little else. This confusion arose partly from the fact that mushrooms of many species were investigated and the results reported under a common head. A June 1946 report by William B. Eccelen, Jr. and Carl R. Fellers of the Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station stated that cultivated mushrooms of the Agaricus Campestris type compare favorably in food value to many fresh fruits and vegetables.

Mushrooms are among the few rich organic sources of germanium, which increases oxygen efficiency of the body, counteracts the effects of pollutants, and increases resistance to disease. Because mushrooms are extremely low in calories, they are useful in reducing diets. They are also a good source of vitamin B.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 123

Protein: 11.9 g

Fat: 1.2 g

Carbohydrates: 19.4 g

Calcium: 26 mg

Phosphorus: 510 mg

Iron: 3.5 mg

Vitamin A: trace

Thiamine: 0.41 mg

Riboflavin: 2.02 mg

Niacin: 18.6 mg

Ascorbic acid: 14 mg

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