Foundation for Advancement in Cancer Therapy

Non-Traditional Approaches to
the Theories, Treatments and Prevention of Cancer

Kale

May 20, 2019

Kale, and collard, its close relative, are the oldest known members of the cabbage family. Wild cabbage, which strongly resembles kale in its appearance, is still found growing along the European coasts and in North Africa. Kale is native either to the eastern Mediterranean region or to Asia Minor. It is known that man has been eating this vegetable for more than 4000 years.

The word “kale” was first used in Scotland, and is derived from the Greek and Latin words “coles” and “caulis”. These words refer to the whole group of cabbage-like plants. In America, kale was first mentioned in 1669, although it was probably introduced to this continent at an earlier date.

The sulfur compounds that are found in the cabbage family are, of course, also found in kale. These compounds break up easily, and decomposition occurs when kale is cooked too long or at too low a temperature. Overcooking also destroys the flavor.

Kale is on the market all year, but is most abundant through the late fall and winter. The peak months are December through February. Kale comes principally from Virginia, New York, New Jersey, and the Middle Atlantic states.

There are now many varieties of kale, but the crinkly-leaved and the smooth-leaved are the two most popular commercial types. The smooth type is usually referred to as spring kale, and the curly as green Scotch kale, or Siberian blue kale. Scotch kale are usually crinkled and curled, have a finely divided leaf, and are bright green to yellowish-green in color. The leaves of the Siberian kale are flattened and smooth in the center, with curled and ruffled edges, and are of a deep, bluish-green color. Wilted and yellowed leaves should be avoided.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Kale is very high in calcium, vitamin A, and iron. It is good for building up the calcium content of the body, and builds strong teeth. Kale is beneficial to the digestive and nervous systems.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 117

Protein: 11.3 g

Fat: 1.7 g

Carbohydrates: 21.0 g

Calcium: 655 mg

Phosphorus: 180 mg

Iron: 6.4 mg

Vitamin A: 21,950 I.U.

Thiamine: 0.3 mg

Riboflavin: 0.76 mg

Niacin: 5.8 mg

Ascorbic acid: 335 mg

Mushroom

May 13, 2019

The Pharaohs of Egypt monopolized mushrooms for their own use. They thought they were too delicate to be eaten by common people. The Egyptian potentates did not understand the sudden, overnight appearance of mushrooms, and consequently believed they grew magically. By the first century B.C., the mushroom had gained such a fine reputation among epicures of the Roman Empire that the poet Horace celebrated its goodness in verse. The Romans called mushrooms “food of the gods”, and served them on festive occasions. They were thought to provide warriors with unusual strength.

Up to the seventeenth century, only the wild types of mushrooms found growing in meadows and pastures were known. During the reign of Louis XIV, mushroom · growing was introduced in France. Parisian market gardeners experimented to learn the secrets of successful mushroom culture. By 1749 mushroom beds were cultivated in caves and cellars, and the results were much better’ than ·when they were grown outdoors. The British were raising mushrooms in hothouses sometime before 1700.

The commercial production of mushrooms in the United States started in the late 1890s when a group of florists in Chester County, Pennsylvania started growing them under the benches in their greenhouses. The greatest event in the history of mushroom culture in the United States occurred in 1926 when a farmer found a clump of pure white mushrooms in a bed of uniformly cream-colored fungi. Most of the mushrooms grown today are descendants of this white clump.

Mushrooms are now cultivated in specially constructed buildings that are windowless and in which temperature and humidity are controlled. Mushroom spawn is cultivated by laboratory scientists who sell it to the growers for inoculation of the mushroom beds. Such precise methods are necessary to provide pure spawn of known characteristics.

The introduction of mushrooms into gravies, sauces, soups, and other dishes adds zest and flavor, but they also are a fine food when served as a vegetable . Mushrooms require very little preparation. Wash, cut off the bottom portion of the stem if it has dried, and either slice the caps and stems or leave whole, depending on the method of cooking. Butter a deep pan, cut up the mushrooms so they fill the pan to a depth of about two inches, and simmer over a low· heat until the mushrooms are covered with their own juice. This may take more than ten minutes. Then, cook more briskly for about five minutes, until tender. Overcooking toughens mushrooms.

Green plants can get their food by manufacturing it in their leaves from air, water, sunshine , and soil nutrients, but mushrooms cannot do this. They have no leaves, so they must depend on green plants to make their food for them, and they cannot use it unless it is in the process of decay. Mushrooms propagate from spores, a brownish powder shed from the rounded head which, when ripe, opens like a parasol. However, cultivated mushrooms are not reproduced from spores, but from fine strands of mycelium, which are root like growths that spread through organic material. Most wild mushrooms are not poisonous, but unless you know the difference, you should leave them alone. It is not possible to tell by taste which mushrooms are dangerous. Some very unpalatable mushrooms are harmless, while others that have an agreeable taste are poisonous.

Scientists today say that darkness is not the primary requisite for growing mushrooms. They say that, for healthy growth, all mushrooms need constant temperature and protection against drafts.

The term mushroom refers to a large number of different species and varieties of fleshy fungi. Only one species is usually cultivated and that is Agaricus Campestris, which has a straight stem, a smooth cap of a shade varying from white or ivory to brown, and gills of different shades of pink. Most of the cultivated mushrooms grown in the United States are of the white variety variously known as Snow White, White King, White Queen, etc. This variety is very prolific and is preferred by nearly all markets because of its attractive, clean, white appearance.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Prior to the mid-1940s, all you needed to do to work up a hot argument among nutritionists was to say the word “mushrooms.” Scientists’ assertions about the food value of mushrooms ranged from calling them’ ‘vegetable beefsteak” full of proteins, to declaring that they had no protein and very little else. This confusion arose partly from the fact that mushrooms of many species were investigated and the results reported under a common head. A June 1946 report by William B. Eccelen, Jr. and Carl R. Fellers of the Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station stated that cultivated mushrooms of the Agaricus Campestris type compare favorably in food value to many fresh fruits and vegetables.

Mushrooms are among the few rich organic sources of germanium, which increases oxygen efficiency of the body, counteracts the effects of pollutants, and increases resistance to disease. Because mushrooms are extremely low in calories, they are useful in reducing diets. They are also a good source of vitamin B.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 123

Protein: 11.9 g

Fat: 1.2 g

Carbohydrates: 19.4 g

Calcium: 26 mg

Phosphorus: 510 mg

Iron: 3.5 mg

Vitamin A: trace

Thiamine: 0.41 mg

Riboflavin: 2.02 mg

Niacin: 18.6 mg

Ascorbic acid: 14 mg

Okra

May 6, 2019

Okra is native to tropical Africa, where it has been cultivated for many centuries. It is now widely grown in warm regions. For many years it has held an important place among the garden vegetables of the southern states.

The young and tender seed pods of okra are used to give a pleasant flavor and provide thickening for soups and stews. In Louisiana, okra is used in Creole cookers and is the “gumbo” used in many dishes. It is excellent also as a boiled vegetable. Just wash it, boil about ten minutes in salted water until tender, drain, and serve with butter or lemon butter. Okra and tomatoes make a fine combination. Raw sliced okra is good in salads. Okra should preferably be cooked in stainless steel, agate, porcelain, earthenware, or glass utensils. Copper, brass, iron, or tin will cause the okra to discolor, turn black, and look unappetizing.

Okra is a soft-stemmed annual of the mallow family and is closely related to the shrubby althea. It grows three to five feet high, and bears yellow flowers which are followed by fruiting capsules or seed pods.

There are three general types of okra: tall green, dwarf green, and ladyfinger. Each of these in again divided according to length and color of the pods. Varieties in most common use are known to the seed trade as Perkins Mammoth, Long Green, Dwarf Green, and White Velvet. Clemson Spineless is of the same type as Perkins Mammoth Podded but has spineless pods and somewhat sparse foliage, making it less troublesome to harvest than other varieties.

Young, tender, fresh, clean pods of small to medium size usually are of good quality. Pods should snap or puncture easily. Pods that have passed their prime look dull and dry. They are usually woody, and the seeds are hard. If held too long, they are likely to become shriveled and discolored, and lack flavor.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

The sodium content of okra is very high. It also contains a vegetable mucin that is soothing to the irritated membranes of the intestinal tract. Okra has an alkaline reaction.

Okra is made into tablets, and they are valuable in replenishing a sodium deficiency in the body and in replacing sodium lost through excessive perspiration. The tablets are also good for ulcers of the stomach.

This low-calorie vegetable helps keep the joints limber. Okra powder is very good to include in broths and soups. Because it contains a high amount of sodium, it is good for elderly people.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 140

Protein: 9.4 g

Fat: 0.8 g

Carbohydrates: 29.6 g

Calcium: 328 mg

Phosphorus: 199 mg

Iron: 2.8 mg

Vitamin A: 2030 I.U.

Thiamine: 0.49 mg

Riboflavin: 0.42 mg

Niacin: 2.8 mg

Ascorbic acid: 121 mg

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